Mesenchymal stem cell therapy is a regenerative medicinal method that medical professionals have studied and practiced for over 30 years.
During the 1960s and ’70s, the scientist A.J. Friedenstein and his co-workers conducted a series of groundbreaking experiments, building upon the previously discovered regenerative qualities of bone marrow tissue in a heterotopic body. Friedenstein and his team found fibroblastic cells in animal marrow that could produce new connective tissue and bone marrow when transplanted to another living being.
As studies continued, scientists found these cells could also create new cartilage¹ and connective fat tissue when transplanted and, in 1991, the scientist Arnold Caplan labeled these cells as mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Later, the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) officially defined MSCs as mesenchymal stromal cells.
In 1999, M.F. Pittenger and his team discovered a strand of mesenchymal stromal cells in human bone marrow that had the capacity to generate new tissue and bone in heterotopic bodies.
Mesenchymal cells are most commonly found in bone marrow. However, mesenchymal cells are produced by other areas of the body and can be found in adipose tissue as well.
In 2000, scientists found MSCs in human umbilical cord bone and tissue for the first time.
Umbilical cord tissue, in particular, contains an abundance of young and effective stromal cells. Scientific evidence suggests that MSCs from Wharton’s jelly in the umbilical cord have especially effective regenerative properties. MSCs from Wharton’s jelly can create new cartilage, connective tissue, and bone marrow faster than MSCs taken from the rest of the body.
As research progressed, scientists discovered that mesenchymal cells are produced in areas all over our body, including in our teeth’s molar cells and in amniotic fluid.
Ways to effectively and safely extract MSCs are continually being developed & tissue regulation mandates the proper donor-screening procedure and compliance with Current Good Tissue Practice (CGTP) as laid out by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
The extraction process is carried out by quarantining cell colonies for several days before getting rid of non-stromal cells and distilling the colony down to the desired regenerative cells over time.³
Advances in the fields of molecular biology and tissue transplantation processing have also had direct and positive implications for mesenchymal stem cell therapy.
Continued studies have shown that these stromal cells can be split into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes for regenerative practices, demonstrating the exceptional value of this research and mesenchymal stem cell therapy.³
Human mesenchymal stem cells are so important because of their multi-purpose and multipotent regenerative medical capacities. MSCs can be used to repair and regenerate many different parts of the body and they are relatively easily extracted due to their large volume and distribution across any donor’s body.
Particularly useful results of MSC regenerative medicine products and practice include:
Using mesenchymal stem cell therapy for bone repair has been shown to be preferable to the standard allografting approach; using perinatal tissue in regenerative therapies is an especially effective way to create new bone marrow.
This is because umbilical cord-stromal cells are the best of the MSCs for blood-vessel angiogenesis and quick regeneration.
Research suggests that using stem cells in regenerative medicine is particularly effective when it comes to the difficult medical practice of cartilage repair. Because of the stromal cell colony’s ability to separate into one of many types of regenerative cells, they can become chondrocytes and build new cartilage from scratch.
Mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow can help to heal traumas surrounding spinal cord injuries,³ while stromal stem cells from umbilical cord tissue can be extracted and isolated to gain neurogenic properties, helping with CNS regeneration.
Future possibilities for MSC therapy look boundless, and scientists continue to make great strides in effective patient screening, understanding cellular signaling, and improving distribution methods.⁵
There is a special interest in the potential of MSC therapy in helping to alleviate Multiple Sclerosis (MS) symptoms. Early tests on mice have shown the positive results of stromal cells in soothing inflammation in the CNS caused by MS. Encouraging results of primary tests on humans with later-stage and secondary progressive MS necessitate further research.
BioStem Technologies produces and sells high-quality and safe regenerative MSC products. We continually develop new possibilities for MSC therapy in our FDA-registered laboratory. For more information about mesenchymal stem cell therapy, contact us here.
(1) Choi, Jane Ru, Kar Wey Yong, and Hui Yin Nam. "Current status and perspectives of human mesenchymal stem cell therapy." (2019).
(2) Viswanathan, S., et al. "Mesenchymal stem versus stromal cells: International Society for Cell & Gene Therapy (ISCT®) Mesenchymal Stromal Cell committee position statement on nomenclature." Cytotherapy 21.10 (2019): 1019-1024.
(3) Han, Yu, et al. "Mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative medicine." Cells 8.8 (2019): 886.
(4) Huang, G T-J et al. “Mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental tissues vs. those from other sources: their biology and role in regenerative medicine.” Journal of dental research vol. 88,9 (2009): 792-806. doi:10.1177/0022034509340867
(5) Pittenger, Mark F., et al. "Mesenchymal stem cell perspective: cell biology to clinical progress." NPJ Regenerative medicine 4.1 (2019): 1-15.